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Assignment Summary

This assessment requires you to write:

A case study essay

  • Which demonstrates your theoretical clinical knowledge around nursing assessment, pathophysiology of factors impacting on clinical deterioration, planning of nursing care, nursing and medical management, and evaluation of care.
  • You are required to answer the case scenario questions provided.
  • Make sure that you are appropriately linking your responses to the case study provided.
  • Ensure that you attempt to answer all six questions relating to the case study. 
  • The layout is a questions and answer style; an introduction or conclusion is NOT necessary. However, it should include logically structured discussion sections.
  • Justify your responses using at least 15 references no more than seven years old. These must be a mix of peer reviewed journal articles and books from Quicksearch or relevant library databases.

This assessment help page assumes you have read the course outline, assessment description and marking rubric provided in Moodle. 

Plan Your Search

In this assessment, you may need to conduct multiple searches. The areas you need to consider are:

  • Nursing assessment & planning of nursing care
  • Pathophysiology of factors impacting on clinical deterioration
  • Nursing and medical management
  • Evaluation of care
  • Family centred care

Start planning your search by:

  1. Identify the key concepts in your assignment scenario 
  2. Consider alternative terms that authors might use for these. The following table has some examples.
Key Concepts Alternate Terms
clinical deterioration “physiological decompensation” OR “declining physiology”
stroke "cerebrovascular accident" OR "cerebral infarction" OR "transient ischaemic attack"
family centred care “family-oriented care” OR “family-inclined care”

Now use Boolean operators to connect your search terms. 

Use OR to combine all the terms for the same concept: Stroke OR Cerebrovascular Accidents

Use AND to combine terms from different concepts: Stroke AND Pathophysiology

Use quotation marks to search for a phrase: "Stroke"

Use brackets to group all terms from the same concept together

Watch the following video to learn more about Boolean operators


When you put it all together:

(Stroke OR "Cerebrovascular accident" OR "cerebral infarction" OR "transient ischaemic attack") AND ("Family Centred Care" OR "Family-inclined care" OR "Family-oriented care")

You may need to alter search terms to get better results.

Search For Resources

For this assessment you will need to include a minimum of 15 references in the essay. These references must be a mixture of books and journals or Library database sources.
In your initial search you can check the box marked “Peer-reviewed Journals” under Availability to ensure that the results are all peer-reviewed resources.  However, you can also limit the search by selecting "Books" or "Journals" under Resource Type.

For nursing, more recent articles and resources are preferred because new and updated information may have come out. Therefore, it is important when using Quicksearch to ensure that you are indicating a time frame (usually within the last 5 years) under Creation Date for the most accurate and up-to-date results. For this particular assessment, your resources are required to be no more than 7 years old unless of historical significance and/or of specific relevance to the topic.


Suggested databases for this assessment are: 

  • CINAHL Complete
    CINAHL Complete is the world’s most comprehensive source of full-text for nursing & allied health journals, providing full text for more than 1,300 journals indexed in CINAHL. This authoritative file contains full text for many of the most used journals in the CINAHL index, with no embargo. CINAHL Complete is the definitive research tool for all areas of nursing & allied health literature.
  • Joanna Briggs Institute (Ovid)
    Resources for evidence based research including Best Practice information sheets, systematic reviews, and electronic journals and conference papers. 
    MEDLINE provides authoritative medical information on medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, pre-clinical sciences, and much more. Created by the National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE uses MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) indexing with tree, tree hierarchy, subheadings and explosion capabilities to search citations from over 5,400 current biomedical journals.
  • MIMS
    MIMS Online is the web version of MIMS -Australia's most comprehensive and authoritative pharmaceutical database. Incorporating information from both MIMS Bi-Monthly and MIMS Annual, MIMS Online provides access to essential information on over 4,500 prescription and non-prescription drugs. The library has a licence for 5 users so if you can't access MIMS try again later.
  • Trip Database
    Online since 1997, Trip (formerly Turning Research Into Practice) is a search engine for quickly finding high-quality research evidence to support and inform clinical practice. 

This is a direct link to the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice

Other Standards and Codes of Practice: 

This is a link to the Institute for Patient-And-Family-Centred Care

Other Resources:


Select appropriate resources

When was the article, book or resource published? Check the assessment instructions to see if a date range has been given. Generally, for nursing, more recent articles and resources are preferred because new and updated information may have come out.
For this particular assessment, your resources are to be no more than 7 years old unless of historical significance and/or of specific relevance to the topic.

How old are the references? Has the article referred to other fairly recent articles? 

How old is the data used? Check to see if the data was collected a long time before the study was published. If it has been, do the authors explain why this was?

Has this source, or its data, been updated?

Is there likely to be more recent information available elsewhere?

If you are using practice guidelines, evidence summaries, or something similar, make sure you use the most recent version.

Is this information relevant to your assignment? Is there likely to be better information? This will depend on what you are trying to find out. Often you will need to read the abstract to find out.

Is this aimed at the correct audience? 

Articles for this assessment should be peer reviewed. If you are not sure, you can copy and paste the title into Quicksearch to see if the purple peer review icon shows in the result:

You can also check the journal title in Ulrichs. If it has a small black icon that looks like a book next to the title, it is peer reviewed (called refereed in Ulrichs).

Who wrote it? What are their qualifications? Are the qualifications relevant to the topic? Most peer reviewed articles will have information about the authors, often at the end or hyperlinked, with their qualifications listed. 

Where do they work? Who do they work for? Generally, authors should be working for a university or a research centre of some kind. 

Are they likely to have a good understanding of this field?

Remember resources such as best practice guidelines or evidence summaries are generally written by reliable medical organisations, such as the Joanna Briggs Institute.

Is the information reliable? 

What is the study population size and characteristics? Keep in mind this is dependent on the study type, for example qualitative studies usually have smaller study populations than quantitative. The population does need to be fairly similar however, to enable accurate results and to make sure any effects reported are due to the treatment. For example, a treatment for back pain may look more effective if the group receiving the treatment is much younger than the group that doesn't.

Is there a control group? This is a group that does not receive the treatment, and allows the researchers to compare them to the group getting the treatment to see if it works.

Is there blinding? This is where the control and treatment groups do not know whether they are getting the intervention or not. Remember though that this might not be possible for some interventions, for example researchers testing a new vaccine can give the control group a saline solution instead of the vaccine, but if they are testing a new massage technique it is almost impossible for the participants to be unaware if they received a massage or not!

Do the statistics make sense and match the authors' claims? 

Have all sides been considered?

Who funded the study? Is it a company, university or research organisation? If it is a company, do they manufacture a product being tested? If you are not sure, can always search for them on the internet. If the URL ends in .com, it is a company.

Is there any obvious bias where the authors or their employers are likely to benefit from the study recommendations? For example, if the authors work for a particular company and recommend the use of one of their products, this could indicate a risk of bias.

Does it state what the authors' were trying to find out? The research aims or questions should be clearly stated in the beginning of the article, and the conclusions should describe what they found out.

Write Your Assignment


FedCite is the one stop shop for all your referencing needs. In nursing, you need to use APA 7. Look at the Using APA 7 section to find out general information on how to cite and reference, and the source types for specific examples.


For this assessment you will need to include a minimum of 15 references in the essay. These should be no more than 7 years old unless of historical significance and/or of specific relevance to the topic (for example; the Ottawa Charter from 1986). These references must be a mixture of books and journals or Library database sources.

Please refer to the common nursing sources page of this LibGuide to aid in referencing some of the more frequently used nursing literature such as the NMBA Standards. 

 The table below summarises how to reference journal articles from FedCite.

  Citation Reference
Article with 1 author

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18.
Article with 2 authors

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice15(1), 38-43.
Article with 3-20 authors
  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(4), 541-549.
Article without a doi
  • A doi is a digital object identifier. Some older articles do not have one. Follow the citation instructions according to the number of authors.

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. 

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics20(9), 583-589

The table below summarises how to reference books from FedCite.

  Citation Reference
Single Author

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.
Two Authors

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.
Three to Twenty Authors
  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and year of publication.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer et al., 2016).

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2012).  Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.
E-Book (From a Database)

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Ross, R. T. (2006). How to examine the nervous system. Humana Press.

Without a DOI:

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.