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Nursing

Assignment Summary

In this assessment you are required to:

Create an e-poster that will research and critically examine Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA/Stroke) in the prehospital and acute care setting within the context of a deteriorating patient.

Within your E-Poster you need to:

  • Explore the different types of CVA and their pathophysiology 
  • Show understanding of risk factors associated with each type and how these would be identified.
  • Describe clinical manifestations and how these would present within physical assessment related to each type in the context of an acute presentation. Ensure you explain assessment findings.
  • Understand which basic diagnostic studies (radiology and pathology) are used to aid diagnosis of the acute stroke and the link between these findings and the pathophysiology of stroke
  • Detail current nursing and medical management strategies in the prehospital and acute care setting for each type of stroke. Ensure you explain any medication administration using the rights of medication administration.
  • You are to use at least 10 peer-reviewed journal articles
  •  Use the E-Poster Design Tips outline to help you create an interesting representation. You should use less text and more visual representation of information including pictures, graphs, and links to video or audio clips. 

This assessment help page assumes you have read the course outline, assessment description and marking rubric provided in Moodle. 

Plan Your Search

Start planning your search by:

  1. Identify the key concepts in your assessment 
  2. Consider alternative terms that authors might use for these, including medical and professional terms

For this assessment, you may need to conduct several searches.

Example: Current nursing and medical management strategies in the prehospital and acute care setting for stroke.

Key Concepts Alternate Terms
stroke "cerebrovascular accident" OR "cerebral infarction" OR "transient ischaemic attack"
prehospital care “immediate care” OR “emergency medical services”

 

Now use Boolean operators to connect your search terms. 

Use OR to combine all the terms for the same concept: Stroke OR Cerebrovascular Accidents

Use AND to combine terms from different concepts: Stroke AND Prehospital Care

Use quotation marks to search for a phrase: "Stroke"

Use brackets to group all terms from the same concept together

Use truncation to search for only the first part of the word (useful if there are likely to be plurals)

Watch the following video to learn more about Boolean operators:

 

 

When you put it all together:

(Stroke OR "Cerebrovascular accident" OR "cerebral infarction" OR "transient ischaemic attack") AND ("Prehospital Care" OR "Emergency Medical Services" OR "Immediate care")

You may need to alter search terms to get better results.

Search For Resources

This assessment requires you to use at least 10 peer-reviewed journal articles for your research.

In your initial search you can check the box marked “Peer-reviewed Journals” under Availability to ensure that the results are all peer-reviewed.   

For nursing, more recent articles are preferred because new and updated information may have come out. Therefore, it is important when using Quicksearch to ensure that you are indicating a time frame (usually within the last 5 years) under Creation Date for the most accurate and up-to-date results.

 

Suggested databases for this assessment are:

  • CINAHL Complete
    CINAHL Complete is the world’s most comprehensive source of full-text for nursing & allied health journals, providing full text for more than 1,300 journals indexed in CINAHL. This authoritative file contains full text for many of the most used journals in the CINAHL index, with no embargo. CINAHL Complete is the definitive research tool for all areas of nursing & allied health literature.
  • MEDLINE
    MEDLINE provides authoritative medical information on medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, pre-clinical sciences, and much more. Created by the National Library of Medicine, MEDLINE uses MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) indexing with tree, tree hierarchy, subheadings and explosion capabilities to search citations from over 5,400 current biomedical journals.
  • Trip Database
    Online since 1997, Trip (formerly Turning Research Into Practice) is a search engine for quickly finding high-quality research evidence to support and inform clinical practice. 

Creative Commons images are an easy way to liven up your poster. Keep in mind, they will need to be referenced. See The Images tab on FedCite, or the Referencing box below to see how to correctly reference images using APA7. The following websites have many Creative Commons image.

  • Flickr Commons
    Visual treasures from the world's public photography archives
  • Pexels
    A collection of free stock photos
  • Pixabay
    Over 970,000 of free stock photos

This is a direct link to the Registered Nurse Standards for Practice

Other Resources:

Select appropriate resources

When was the article published? Check the assessment instructions to see if a date range has been given. Generally, for nursing, more recent articles are preferred because new and updated information may have come out.

How old are the references? Has the article referred to other fairly recent articles? 

How old is the data used? Check to see if the data was collected a long time before the study was published. If it has been, do the authors explain why this was?

Has this source, or its data, been updated?

Is there likely to be more recent information available elsewhere?

Is this information relevant to your assignment? Is there likely to be better information? This will depend on what you are trying to find out. Often you will need to read the abstract to find out.

Is this aimed at the correct audience?

Articles for this assessment should be peer reviewed. If you are not sure, you can copy and paste the title into Quicksearch to see if the purple peer review icon shows in the result:

 

You can also check the journal title in Ulrichs. If it has a small black icon that looks like a book next to the title, it is peer reviewed (called refereed in Ulrichs).

Who wrote it? What are their qualifications? Are the qualifications relevant to the topic? Most peer reviewed articles will have information about the authors, often at the end or hyperlinked, with their qualifications listed. 

Where do they work? Who do they work for? Generally, authors should be working for a university or a research centre of some kind. 

Are they likely to have a good understanding of this field?

Is the information reliable? 

What is the study population size and characteristics? Keep in mind this is dependent on the study type, for example qualitative studies usually have smaller study populations than quantitative. The population does need to be fairly similar however, to enable accurate results and to make sure any effects reported are due to the treatment. For example, a treatment for back pain may look more effective if the group receiving the treatment is much younger than the group that doesn't.

Is there a control group? This is a group that does not receive the treatment, and allows the researchers to compare them to the group getting the treatment to see if it works.

Is there blinding? This is where the control and treatment groups do not know whether they are getting the intervention or not. Remember though that this might not be possible for some interventions, for example researchers testing a new vaccine can give the control group a saline solution instead of the vaccine, but if they are testing a new massage technique it is almost impossible for the participants to be unaware if they received a massage or not!

Do the statistics make sense and match the authors' claims? 

Have all sides been considered? 

Who funded the study? Is it a company, university or research organisation? If it is a company, do they manufacture a product being tested? If you are not sure, can always search for them on the internet. If the URL ends in .com, it is a company.

Is there any obvious bias where the authors or their employers are likely to benefit from the study recommendations? For example, if the authors work for a particular company and recommend the use of one of their products, this could indicate a risk of bias.

Does it state what the authors' were trying to find out? The research aims or questions should be clearly stated in the beginning of the article, and the conclusions should describe what they found out.

Referencing

FedCite is the one stop shop for all your referencing needs. In nursing, you need to use APA 7. Look at the Using APA 7 section to find out general information on how to cite and reference, and the source types for specific examples.

In this assessment:

  • you are to use at least 10 peer-reviewed references in your paper.
  • In text citations for text and graphics used must be on the main poster.
  • Your Reference list can be added to a separate slide.

Please refer to the common nursing sources page of this LibGuide to aid in referencing some of the more frequently used nursing literature such as the NMBA Standards. 

You are encouraged to use visual material in your ePoster. Any image, graph or chart that you did not create needs to be referenced. This requires a caption above the image, a note below the image, and a reference in the reference list. Images are called figures in APA 7, and this is how you will refer to them in your citation.

  • If there is no artist or author for the image, use the title instead of the author's name.
  • Reference the figure according to the source you found it in. So, if you found it on a website, just reference the website itself in the reference list.

In this assignment, you need to reference peer reviewed resources. The table below summarises how to reference journal articles from FedCite

  Citation Reference
Article with 1 author

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0720-048X(12)70007-4
Article with 2 authors

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009
Article with 3-20 authors
  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(4), 541-549. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2825
Article without a doi
  • A doi is a digital object identifier. Some older articles do not have one. Follow the citation instructions according to the number of authors.

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Namevol(issue), xx–xx. 

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics20(9), 583-589