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Assignment Summary

This assessment help page assumes you have read the course outline, assessment description and marking rubric provided in Moodle. 

This assessment requires you to write:

An essay and reflection on a case study

  • Critically identify and discuss the legal and ethical implications of the case study provided
  • Reflect on the TurnItIn similarity report including what changes you made and what you learnt from the drafting process
  • Use and reference in APA7 style at least 10 references no more than 5-7 years old, including a mixture of peer reviewed journal articles, books, legislation, and codes.

Plan Your Search

Start planning your search by:

  1. Identify the key concepts in your assignment scenario
  2. Consider alternative terms that authors might use for these

You will need to take some of the keywords out of the case study think about how they might be used by authors in relevant articles. For example, authors are more likely to use professional terms, for example instead of pain killers or sleeping pills, authors may use terms like opioids, sedatives, benzodiazepines or particular medication names. 

You may need to do multiple smaller searches to find all you need. 

Key concepts Alternative terms
Stealing Misappropriation, diversion, theft
Legal and ethical issues Professional misconduct, criminal conviction, 
Nursing student Nurse, student nurse, clinical placement

Now use Boolean operators to connect your search terms. 

Use OR to combine all the terms for the same concept: misappropriation OR theft

Use AND to combine terms from different concepts: student nurse AND diversion

Use quotation marks to search for a phrase: "professional misconduct"

Use brackets to group all terms from the same concept together

Watch the following video to learn more about Boolean operators

When you put it together: 

("student nurse" OR "nursing student") AND ("professional misconduct" OR "criminal conviction")

("student nurse" OR "nursing student") AND ("substance use" OR "drug abuse")

You will probably need to conduct multiple searches and alter your search terms as you go.


Search For Resources

Suggested databases for this assessment are:

Standards, codes, and legislation

This assessment also requires you to refer to standards, codes, and legislation. These are all slightly different and have different functions. Make sure you use the most recent version, as these are sometimes updated.


Legislation:  Laws that are passed by parliament. They are sometimes referred to as Acts. The jurisdiction is what parliament created the law. Commonwealth legislation was created by the Federal, or Australian government and applies to the whole of Australia. State legislation is created by state governments, and applies only to the state it was created in. 

Standards: Standards are documents that set out guidelines and procedures to ensure that a product or service is safe and reliable.

Codes: Codes give guidance on how to ensure standards are met. In nursing, these include codes of conduct, standards for practice, and codes of ethics.

Legal dictionaries

The legal dictionaries below can be used to find definitions of other legal terminology:

Nursing codes and standards


Legislation websites 

  • Federal Register of Legislation: This contains Commonwealth legislation, or legislation made by the Australian government
  • Victorian Legislation: This contains legislation made by the Victorian government.
  • LawLex: This contains both Commonwealth and state legislation
  • See the Legislation page in the Business Law subject guide for guidance on searching these websites.


Several databases can be used to search for legislation relevant to nurses. If you know the title, type it into the search bar, or contact the library for further support using these databases.

Do your references pass the CRAAP test?

When was the article published? Check the assessment instructions to see if a date range has been given. Generally for nursing, more recent articles are preferred because new and updated information may have come out.

How old are the references? Has the article referred to other fairly recent articles? 

How old is the data used? Check to see if the data was collected a long time before the study was published. If it has been, do the authors explain why this was?

For material such as legislation, standards and codes of conduct, make sure you use the most recent version as these are sometimes updated.

Is this information relevant to your assignment? Is there likely to be better information? This will depend on what you are trying to find out. Often you will need to read the abstract to find out.

Is this aimed at the correct audience? Articles for this assessment should be peer reviewed. If you are not sure, you can copy and paste the title into Quicksearch to see if the purple peer review icon shows in the result:

Alternatively, you can check the journal title in Ulrichs. If it has a small black icon that looks like a book next to the title, it is peer reviewed (called refereed in Ulrichs).

However, be aware that legislation, standards and codes of practice are not peer reviewed in the same way journal articles are, but are still appropriate to use.

Who wrote it? What are their qualifications? Are the qualifications relevant to the topic? Most peer reviewed articles will have information about the authors, often at the end or hyperlinked, with their qualifications listed. 

Where do they work? Who do they work for? Generally, authors should be working for a university or a research centre of some kind. 

Are they likely to have a good understanding of this field?

Remember resources such as standards and codes of conduct are written by professional regulatory bodies such as the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Board, and therefore are still considered to be authoritative.

What is the study population size and characteristics? Keep in mind this is dependent on the study type, for example qualitative studies usually have smaller study populations than quantitative

Is there a control group? This is a group that does not receive the treatment, and allows the researchers to compare them to the group getting the treatment to see if it works.

Is there blinding? This is where the control and treatment groups do not know whether they are getting the intervention or not. 

Do the statistics make sense and match the authors' claims? 

Who funded the study? Is it a company, university or research organisation? If it is a company, do they manufacture a product being tested? 

Is there any obvious bias where the authors or their employers are likely to benefit from the study recommendations? For example, if the authors work for a particular company and recommend the use of one of their products, this could indicate a risk of bias.

Does it state what the authors' were trying to find out? The research aims or questions should be clearly stated in the beginning of the article, and the conclusions should describe what they found out.

Write Your Assignment

The following resources are helpful for writing your assignment.


FedCite is the one stop shop for all your referencing needs. In nursing, you need to use APA 7. Look at the Using APA7 section to find out general information on how to cite and reference, and the source types for specific examples. 

In this assessment, as well as referencing peer reviewed articles, you will need to reference legislation, standards and codes. The Referencing common nursing sources page on this guide has many examples of how to reference these.

Source In text citation Reference list
National safety and quality health standards

1st in-text citation:

(Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care [ACSQHC], 2017, Standard 4.7)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(ACSQHC, 2012, Standard 4.7)

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2017). National safety and quality health service standards (2nd ed.).>/div>
Code of conduct for nurses

1st in-text citation:

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA], 2018, Principle 4.1)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(NMBA, 2018, Principle 3.3)

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2018, March 1). Code of conduct for nurses. 
International code of ethics for nurses

1st in-text citation:

(International Council of Nurses [ICN], 2021)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(ICN, 2021)

International Council of Nurses. (2021). The ICN code of ethics for nurses.

You can refer to a section of the code in the in-text reference as needed, for example:

1st in-text citation:

(International Council of Nurses [ICN], 2021, s 1.3)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(ICN, 2021, s 1.3)


N.B. this reference is an example only. The section of the act may be different to the one you actually use, and you may need to replace s 1.3 with another section as appropriate.

Registered nurse practice standards

1st in-text citation:

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA], 2016, Standard 3.2)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(NMBA, 2016, Standard 1.2)

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2016). Registered nurses standards for practice.
Australian charter of healthcare rights

1st in-text citation:

(Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care [ACSQHC], 2020)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(ACSQHC, 2020)

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. (2020). My healthcare rights: Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights (2nd ed.) [A4 accessible version].




Safe Patient Care Act 2015 (Vic) s 14

Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Act 2015 (Vic)s 14.;query=nurse;mask_path=au/legis/vic/consol_act
N.B. this reference is an example only. The section of the act may be different to the one you actually use, and you may need to replace s 14(a) with another section as appropriate.
Health Practitioner Regulation National Law 2009 (Cth) s 140(a)
Health Practitioner Regulation National Law 2009 (Cth) s14(a).


N.B. this reference is an example only. The section of the act may be different to the one you actually use, and you may need to replace s 14(a) with another section as appropriate.

Textbook (Berglund, 2019)
Berglund, C. A. (2019). Integrating law, ethics and regulation: A guide for nursing and health care students. Oxford University Press.
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia

1st in-text citation:

(Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia [NMBA], 2018)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(NMBA, 2018)

Citations with same author and date: 

(NMBA, 2022a)

(NMBA, 2022b)

Note: For a website, you need to reference the exact page you get information from. If you use information from multiple pages, you will need to create a reference for each. Therefore the title and URL and possible the date will be different for each reference from the same website. If you cannot find the publication date, you can use the page reviewed date down the bottom. 

If you have multiple webpages referenced that have the same author and date, use a letter immediately after the date to distinguish between them. This will need to be included in the citations as well. 

Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2022a). Registration renewal. 
Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia. (2022b). Re-entry to practice.

If you access a document from the webpage, use the information from the document itself, not the page you accessed it from. If the author is different to the website name, include the website name after the document title.

Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2015). Registration standard: Criminal history: For registered health practitioners.
Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency

1st in-text citation:

(Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency [AHPRA], 2018)

Subsequent in-text citations:

(AHPRA, 2018)

For more information about referencing specific pages or documents from a website, please see the row above. 


Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2022). Accreditation standards.


Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. (2020). A unique and substantial achievement: Ten years of national health practitioner regulation in Australia.

Inherent Requirements for Bachelor of Nursing


(Federation University, 2022)


(Federation University, n.d.)

Federation University. (2022, February 23). School of Health: Inherent requirements

Federation University. (n.d.). Pre-registration nursing programs 2021-2022: Inherent requirements.