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Education - Early Childhood, Primary and Secondary

How to reference key online resources for Education (APA 7th)

 

Use this template for webpages & for PDFs retrieved from the web:

Author. (Year or Year, Month Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Site name (exclude if same as author name). URL

 

This table shows how to format in-text citations and full references for key educational resources in APA 7th:

Resource
In-text citation (1st instance)
In-text citation (subsequent)
Reference list
 

Literacy Teaching Toolkit (website)

(Department of Education and Training [DET], 2019)

(DET, 2019)

 

 

High impact teaching strategies (HITS) (website) (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)  (DET, 2020)
Department of Education and Training. (2020, June 10). High impact
teaching strategies (HITS). 

https://www.education.vic.gov.au/ school/teachers/teachingresources/practice/ improve/Pages/hits.aspx
High impact teaching strategies (HITS) (PDF) (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2019)  (DET, 2019)
Department of Education and Training. (2019). High impact
teaching strategies: Excellence in teaching and learning.
 
https://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/school/teachers/support/high-impact-teaching-strategies.pdf
ACARA Australian Curriculum (website) (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.) (ACARA, n.d.)
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). Australian curriculum
https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/
ACARA Australian Curriculum (example of a specific page within the site) (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.) (ACARA, n.d.)
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. (n.d.). English. https://australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10-curriculum/english/
VCAA Victorian Curriculum (website) (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority [VCAA], n.d.) (VCAA, n.d.)
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.). Victorian curriculum: Foundation-10https://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/
VCAA Victorian Curriculum (example of a specific page within the site) Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority [VCAA], n.d.) (VCAA, n.d.)
Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.). English as
an additional language (EAL)

https://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/english/english-as-an-additional-language-eal/
Resource
In-text citation (1st instance)
In-text citation (subsequent)
Reference list 
 
Victorian Early Years Learning and Development Framework (PDF)

(Department of Education and Training [DET] &

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority [VCAA], 2016

(DET & VCAA, 2016)

Department of Education and Training, & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2016). Victorian early years learning and development framework: For all children from birth to eight years. 
https://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/childhood/providers/ edcare/veyldframework.pdf

 

*Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (PDF) (Department of Education and Training, 2019)* (Department of Education and Training, 2019)*
*Department of Education and Training. (2019). Belonging, being & becoming: The early years learning framework for Australia. https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-05/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf

*The Early Years Learning Framework was last updated by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training (since renamed as the Department of Education, Skills and Employment).  To avoid ambiguity if your assignment refers to both this document and resources produced by the Victorian Department of Education and Training, reference the author of the EYLF as Australian Government Department of Education and Training. Format the in-text citation as (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2019).

Tips for referencing websites and online documents (using APA 7th)

Visit our FedCite guide for examples of references and in-text citations for webpages and online documents. 
See below for supplementary advice to help you with specific referencing issues that you may encounter.

 

Referencing websites

  • You must include an in-text citation and reference list entry for a website/ webpage if you mention specific information from it, whether you are paraphrasing or quoting directly.
  • If you are talking in general about a website, without mentioning any specific information on that site, simply give the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. There is no need to include a reference list entry. 

 

Reference list entries for webpages and PDFs

Authors:

  • Give name of corporate author in full (not as an abbreviation or acronym) in the reference list.
  • Include only the specific agency responsible for the publication - do not include the name of parent organisations (e.g. State Government of Victoria) unless you need to avoid ambiguity.

Date:

  • Provide as specific a date as possible for webpages (as displayed on the individual page) or use (n.d.) if there is no date given.
  • Some online works note when the work was last updated. If this date is clearly attributable to the specific content you are citing rather than the overall website, use the updated date rather than the year of creation or copyright.

Title:

  • Give the title of the specific page. If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets.

Site name:

  • In many cases, the website's name is the same as the name of the corporate author. Whenever this is the case, omit the site name from the reference list entry to avoid repetition.

 

In-text citations for webpages and PDFs

  • The first time you refer to an organisation or government body in an in-text citation, include the full name, followed by the abbreviated form or acronym (if it is well-known and commonly-used) in square brackets.  e.g. (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009).
  • In subsequent in-text citations, include only the abbreviated form or acronym (if it is well-known and commonly-used) e.g. (DEEWR, 2009)
  • When quoting directly from a PDF, include a page number, e.g. (DEEWR, 2009, p. 11).
  • When quoting directly from a webpage, include the section title or paragraph number, e.g. (VCAA, n.d., para. 3). If paragraphs are not numbered, simply count them yourself.

 

Referencing multiple pages from within the same website

  • Reference each webpage separately and use lower case letter suffixes (as described in following section below) to distinguish between each one.

 

Referencing multiple sources with same author and same year of publication

  • When you refer to more than one source published by the same author in the same year, distinguish each source by using a lower-case letter immediately after the year within the brackets.
  • In the reference list, order these works alphabetically by title. In-text citations should include the same corresponding letter.
  • NOTE: If the date is given as (n.d.), add a hyphen before the lower-case letter. e.g. (n.d.-a)
Example: In-text

… other strategies are mentioned (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2019a)

… as described in the Toolkit (DET, 2019b) 

Example: Reference list

Department of Education and Training. (2019a). High impact teaching strategies: Excellence in teaching and learning. 

https://www.education.vic.gov.au/Documents/school/teachers/support/high-impact-teaching-strategies.pdf

Department of Education and Training. (2019b). Literacy teaching toolkit. https://www.education.vic.gov.au/

school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/english/literacy/Pages/default.aspx

APA Style website

For more information on how to reference webpages, visit the APA Style website:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Webpage on a website references. APA style. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/webpage-website-references